CO2 storage

September 12, 2023

CO2 Storage Efficiency
Ensure your investment for the most appropriate storage efficiencies for sustainability.


In her paper, Utilizing Multiphase Flow Modeling to Estimate CO2 Solution Storage Efficiency and Sequestration Project Size, author Kacey Garber discusses how developing an understanding of CO2 storage efficiency and CO2 capacity estimates for a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) project will help you properly scope your project location and therefore maximize the benefits CCS has to offer.

The storage component of a CCS project requires a Class VI Underground Injection Control permit to inject supercritical CO2. These permits require multiphase flow modeling to delineate both the extent of the injected supercritical CO2 and areas that exceed a critical pressure threshold as a result of injection. SCS has found this modeling to also be valuable during project scoping to provide a sense of the total CO2 storage capacity for a given project.

Kacey walks through a case study that utilized a multiphase flow model to investigate what operational parameters would lead to the most efficient use of pore space for a CCS project in development. This included examining the effects of different injection rates, durations, and locations and investigating multi-injection well scenarios. This case study ultimately shows that a multiphase flow model will help you meet the requirements for your Class VI injection well permit application; it will also help you right-size your CCS project during the planning phase. Incorporating project-specific considerations into the model will help you identify operational conditions ideal for maximizing CO2 storage efficiency.


Read, print, share the paper, Utilizing Multiphase Flow Modeling to Estimate CO2 Solution Storage Efficiency and Sequestration Project Size.


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Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am

March 7, 2023

ccr carbon capture


With climate change becoming a center of attention globally, much focus has pointed toward carbon capture and storage (CCS) in recent years. While USEPA has published general guidance for Class VI permitting, it is still a new permitting challenge for both scientists and regulators alike. Drawing on lessons learned from more familiar and well-developed regulatory frameworks will be beneficial.

In our Technical Bulletin, Applying Lessons Learned From Municipal Solid Waste and Coal Combustion Residuals to the Development of Testing and Monitoring Plans for CO2 Storage Projects, we focus on the testing and monitoring aspect of Class VI permitting and related complexities, including the project’s overall scale, enhanced costs, and enhanced regulatory risk. We discuss the key considerations for developing an effective CCS Testing and Monitoring Plan based on lessons learned from developed MSW and CCR monitoring programs, as well as how early planning and good judgment can help navigate the complexities associated with CCS projects and ultimately reduce those complexities and associated project costs.

Recommendations include meticulous site characterization efforts early in the CO2 storage project and tailoring the monitoring network. The latter includes placing monitoring wells based on multiphase modeling predictions, designing geochemically and geomechanically compatible monitoring wells, and using strategic statistical techniques to analyze and interpret monitoring data.

It is important to remember that for CO2 storage, groundwater monitoring is not intended to be the primary monitoring method for detecting fluid leakage and migration. It is only one of many required testing and monitoring methods. Even so, the monitoring network must be planned and established appropriately and then tightly coordinated with the other testing and monitoring methods to maximize the protection of underground sources of drinking water.


For more information on carbon capture and CO2 storage, contact:

SCS Engineers will continue to post timely information, resources, and presentations to keep you well informed. These include additional guidance, industry reaction, and webinars with our teams using our website, on SCS Engineers LinkedIn, and on SCS YouTube on-demand forums.

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Posted by Diane Samuels at 9:16 am