In the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID), the complete soil removal (CSR) restoration technique was effective in removing the invasive species (Schinus terebinthifolius) and reducing mean annual evapotranspiration by 18% over 14 years. Groundwater and surface-water chemical analyses revealed lower concentrations of some ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+) and nutrients inside the HID compared to outside the HID. The complete removal of plants and soil from within the HID, along with the reduced rates of evapotranspiration, most likely contributed to the lower concentrations of ions and nutrients in both the surface water and groundwater. This research confirmed that the CSR restoration efforts in the HID were successful in changing hydrologic conditions with the HID towards more oligotrophic conditions characteristic of the natural Everglades.
This research has impacts on surface and groundwater testing – contact the co-author Dillion Reio of SCS Engineers or for more information.
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