Tag Archives: ETLF

Using Landfill Gas Extraction Wells to Address Heat Management

July 23, 2018

Accumulation of heat in large, deep, and wet landfills is being observed at U.S. landfills. Heat accumulation can lead to higher temperatures deep in a landfill, which can disrupt normal biological degradation processes and adversely affect the systems for collecting and processing landfill gas.

Landfill gas generation from organic matter in a landfill is a natural phenomenon with varying degrees of gas generation depending on the age and the mix of organic matter in the waste. Over the past four decades, solid waste engineers have successfully developed and constructed various types of gas extraction and control systems (GCCS), to effectively collect, remove, and dispose of landfill gases under normal operating conditions at Subtitle D landfills. The number of technologically sophisticated systems converting landfill gas to reusable energy continue to grow significantly over the last decade.

Various types of gas extraction systems with certain accompanying controls for the destruction of gas after extraction (flaring), conversion systems to generate electricity, or produce medium or high Btu gas from the extracted gas are commonplace. However, high temperatures developing inside landfills do raise the questions of the survivability and sufficiency of these systems to meet compliance requirements in the long run, and if the existing systems can be modified to extract enough heat. Solid waste engineers need to address heat removal from landfills and design to control temperatures below the landfill surface in a much more direct and practical way.

In the past, some solid waste engineers thought that high levels of gas extraction from a landfill could remove sufficient accumulated heat to mitigate elevated temperature conditions. However, the current consensus of many solid waste professionals is that the extraction of hot gas from the landfill removes heat from the interior of the landfill, but thermodynamic evaluation of heat transfer has shown that the amount of heat extracted from landfills via hot gas through the GCCS is insignificant compared to the amount of heat that accumulates under elevated temperature landfills.

Due to the low molecular weight of landfill gas, the amount of heat that can be extracted from the interior of an elevated temperature landfill is limited. The rest of the heat needs to be transferred out of the landfill by other means. There are a few pathways for heat transfer out of the landfill under natural conditions, namely heat transfer through the exposed surface of the landfill (above ground surface), heat transfer into the ground below the waste, and heat transfer to liquids traveling vertically through the waste column and eventually extracted in the form of leachate. There are also chemical reactions taking place in the landfill that absorb heat from the surrounding environment to complete the reaction process. There are also numerous chemical reactions, as well as biological reactions, that are exothermic and add heat to the waste mass.

Solid waste operators and engineers cannot solely rely on the amount of heat extracted through gas wells to control high temperatures in elevated temperature landfills. Watered out gas wells with reduced gas productivity further contribute to a reduction in heat extraction through gas collection wells. Thermodynamic computations have indicated that an unrealistically high number of gas extraction wells per acre may be needed to extract the accumulated heat in elevated temperature landfills, which means increasing the number of gas wells cannot be the sole solution to address excess heat removal from a landfill.

Every landfill is unique and requires a custom solution, but our general advice would be to construct a reasonable number of gas wells per acre, maintain existing gas extraction wells to the best of your ability, expedite movement of liquids through the waste vertical column supplemented by an effective leachate collection system, and look into developing systems to manage heat in the landfill.

SCS is an expert in the management of elevated temperature landfills and has been promoting the development of heat management systems over the past several years. As a result, we are highly qualified to address heat accumulation in landfills and development of heat removal systems to control temperatures below the landfill surface. If you have an elevated temperature landfill at your facility or a landfill that seems to be progressing in the direction of becoming an elevated temperature landfill in the future, contact us and let us review field data from your facility and develop means to control temperatures below the landfill surface.

Author: Ali Khatami, PhD, PE, LEP, CGC, is a project director and a vice president of SCS Engineers. He is also our National Expert for Landfill Design and Construction Quality Assurance. He has nearly 40 years of research and professional experience in mechanical, structural, and civil engineering.

EREF is an excellent resource for scientific information and the latest research.

 

 

 

 

 

Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am
Tag Archives: ETLF

Landfill Heat Management – Considerations for Future Development

July 10, 2018

Heat generation in landfills is a natural phenomenon. It happens in every landfill to a degree. Heat generation in landfills accepting organic matter occurs to a higher degree due to organic material biological degradation. Subtitle D landfills accepting organic matter also accept other types of materials that can chemically react under specific conditions to generate additional heat through exothermic reactions.

Recent experience has shown that deep landfills with high levels of organic matter and high levels of moisture in the waste column can potentially create conditions deep within the landfill so that the heat generated cannot escape from the landfill boundaries fast enough. As a result, heat accumulates in the landfill and creates the condition known as elevated temperature landfill or ETLF.

The accumulation of heat causes rising temperatures within the landfill that can adversely affect the beneficial biological degradation of organic waste. Beneficial degradation of organic matter generates methane that is captured by the landfill gas control and collection system (GCCS) and in many instances converted to energy through highly technologically sophisticated systems.

Adversely affected biological degradation of organic waste under high-temperature conditions causes significant increases in the generation of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and other gasses that have no economic value and can cause other environmental challenges, including regulatory compliance and increased public scrutiny. Additionally, control systems placed in service to address conditions resulting from elevated temperatures can be costly.

If you manage a deep and wet landfill with significant organic matter in your waste stream, you should consider design and operational steps to mitigate future operational and compliance challenges. These might include new engineered features to enhance liquids, gas, and heat removal from the deeper parts of the landfill. Many of the major landfill companies are currently designing and constructing systems to expedite the movement of water and gas through the waste column, which is a great help to potentially minimizing heat accumulations in the landfill.

Significant research work is currently underway to find out causes of heat accumulation in landfills, but it may take years before accurate cause and effect of such complex and inter-relating processes are more clearly determined, and solutions developed. Heat removal by landfill gas and leachate takes place on a regular basis, but the quantities are insignificant to affect a major reduction in accumulated heat in the landfill.

SCS is an expert in the management of elevated temperature landfills and has been promoting the development of heat management systems over the past several years. As a result, we are highly qualified to address heat accumulation in landfills and development of heat removal systems to control temperatures below the landfill surface. If you have an elevated temperature landfill at your facility or a landfill that seems to be progressing in the direction of becoming an elevated temperature landfill in the future, contact us and let us review field data from your facility and develop means to control temperatures below the landfill surface.

Author: Ali Khatami, PhD, PE, LEP, CGC, is a project director and a vice president of SCS Engineers. He is also our National Expert for Landfill Design and Construction Quality Assurance. He has nearly 40 years of research and professional experience in mechanical, structural, and civil engineering.

 

 

 

 

 

Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am
Tag Archives: ETLF

SCS Advice From the Field: Heat Generation in Landfills and ETLF

October 31, 2017

 

The Heat Accumulation Phenomenon and Elevated Temperature Landfills – ETLF

 

Typical Conditions

The organic matter that is placed in landfills goes through a decomposition process that is exothermic and releases heat inside the landfill space.  There are also other exothermic processes such as metal corrosion, hydration, carbonation, and acid-base neutralization that contribute to the heat generation phenomenon in landfills.  Municipal solid waste has a relatively low heat conductivity characteristic, which means the heat is not as easily conducted through the waste keeping the landfill interior generally warmer than the areas near the landfill exterior.

Landfills expel the heat in different ways; propagating through the waste mass to the air, ground, leachate, and gas heat sinks.  The heat escapes the landfill at its boundaries by convection to the air above the landfill surface and by conduction to the ground below the waste.  Heat can also escape from landfills through liquids and gases removed from the landfill. For example, by conduction, via leachate that flows through the waste and is removed by leachate sumps and by convection, and via gases generated inside the landfill that are removed through the gas collection system.

 

Special Conditions

The large majority of landfills in the country show no signs of special conditions indicating too much heat. The characteristics noted in this blog have been observed in a few large, deep, wet landfills. Field investigations at landfills with high temperatures revealed that the highest temperatures are generally located at mid-point to the two-thirds depth of waste from the top surface.  Temperatures as high as 250 °F have been recorded by specialized measuring devices.

Under certain conditions, elevated temperatures may occur inside a landfill, and the excess heat changes the character of chemical reactions taking place in the landfill, such as the decomposition process of the organic matter. Other documented changes that may take place in accumulated heat conditions are: leachate becoming stronger with higher BOD, lower pH, higher carboxylic acids and salts; concentrations of certain acids increasing; carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide generation increasing; the ratio of methane to carbon dioxide decreasing; hydrogen generation increasing; landfill odors changing to a significantly pungent character; landfill settlement rates increasing; gas generation and gas pressure increasing; leachate generation increasing; along with other changes.

 

Research

Heat generation in landfills is studied by researchers, reported in technical literature and scientific papers by academia and the industry.  A summary of the findings related to the amount of heat generated from municipal solid waste in landfills is presented in Table 1 of Heat Generation in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills  posted on the California Polytechnic State University, Robert E. Kennedy Library website.

Since the issue of high temperatures in landfills is of extreme importance to landfill operators with respect to compliance, operations, and financial aspects of these cases, finding out the cause and sources of excess heat is a hot subject in the field of landfill science.  The largest research grant supporting the on-going research in this field was awarded by the Environmental Research & Education Foundation (EREF) in December 2014.  So far, three parts of a technical article explaining chemical mechanisms through which organic matter decomposes and generate various types of other chemicals and heat have been published by the researchers of the above grant in Waste360.  The research is on-going, and more information will be published in future.  Links to the first three parts of the above article are provided here:

http://www.waste360.com/landfill-operations/diagnosing-and-understanding-elevated-temperature-landfills-part-1

http://www.waste360.com/landfill-operations/diagnosing-and-understanding-elevated-temperature-landfills-part-2

http://www.waste360.com/landfill-operations/diagnosing-and-understanding-elevated-temperature-landfills-part-3

 

Prevention, Diagnosing and Managing ETLFs

SCS was involved in the preparation of standards for large, deep and wet landfills for a major waste operator in 2016.  The intent of the standards is to implement measures to prevent elevated temperature conditions in large, deep, and wet landfills.  SCS’s experience at such landfills and its in-depth knowledge can be valuable to those waste operators who are either experiencing elevated temperature conditions in their landfills or want to prevent conditions forming in their landfills proactively.

 

About the Author: Dr. Ali Khatami

Join SCS Engineers at the Global Waste Management Symposium to learn more, or click these links read about our landfill and landfill gas to energy services, clients, and articles.

Contact a professional near you at service@scsengineers.com.

 

 

 

 

Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am
SCS Address

Corporate Headquarters

3900 Kilroy Airport Way Ste 100
Long Beach, CA 90806-6816

Telephone

1 (800) 767-4727
1 (562) 427-0805 | FAX
service@scsengineers.com

Required Posting