Reducing CO2 is essential for our planet to thrive. At SCS Engineers, we’ve been helping all industries, cities, and states do just that for over 50 years. We focus solely on environmental solutions; in the industry, it’s called pure environmental, along with industry rankings that consistently rank our results in the top tiers.
Our culture is one of sharing. Our professional staff are involved in their communities and global industry associations where we speak, publish and share what works openly with you. Our newest blog series Preventing and Reducing CO2 publishes monthly, bringing you the latest papers, presentations, and case studies on reducing CO2 and targeting climate change.
We hope you find this collection of article, papers, videos, and opinion pieces helpful. The opinion pieces raise logical questions and help us create sustainable solutions rather than quick fixes that don’t stand up economically over time. We include a broader range of topics for landfills, as they diligently work toward reducing CO2 and using proven wastewater treatment options.
Sustainable Living Key to Tackling Climate Change Tackling Climate Change: ISWA’s James Law explains how changing people’s mindsets and behaviors impacts climate change …
The Wise Way to Fight Inevitable Climate Change This opinion piece in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette by Joseph Duckett describes two major reasons why we need to rethink a country-by-country strategy to fight climate change …
Landfill PFAS Study: Concentrations After Leachate Treatment The objective of this study was to evaluate a cross-section of full-scale on-site landfill treatment systems to measure changes in PFAS concentrations. Leachate samples were collected before and after treatment from 15 facilities and were evaluated for 26 PFAS, including 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), 7 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic …
Design to Maximize Landfill Air Space – Your Landfill’s Golden Egg Free Webinar and QA Forum: Modern Landfill Design for Siting and Maximizing Air Space The trend to go larger necessitates more landfill design sophistication and master planning to recoup the growing capital investment upfront. During this month’s SCS Engineers webinar and open forum, our panel will discuss how extending the life of a landfill is a greener option …
EPA’s Brownfields Cleanup Grants $60M – Deadline November 22 Brownfields redevelopment and land recycling cleans up past activities that occurred on properties impacting local ecosystems. These properties help revitalize areas economically while making them safe again. When you’re looking at energy as well as environmental costs, remediation is often greener. The FY 2023 Brownfields Multipurpose, Assessment, Revolving Loan Fund, and Cleanup Grant Guidelines are now available (go to Open Solicitations). The application submission deadline is November 22, 2022.
SCS respects your privacy – you may share these resources individually using social media and email icons on each page. You may share all of the resources by sharing this blog. Look for our next Preventing and Reducing CO2 blog in October! If you missed our August issue – no problem, click here.
Dr. Ketan Shah of SCS Engineers will present his paper and findings at the Air and Waste Management Association, 115th ACE-22 conference from June 27-30 in San Francisco, California. Methane generation, recovery, and emissions projections for biodegradable polyester fiber used to create clothing products are growing. This clothing will eventually be disposed of in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in the U.S. The scope of work described in this research project includes providing the methane estimates that discuss the data, assumptions, and calculation methods used to develop the estimates.
(40 CFR Part 60, Subpart OOO)
On May 21, 2021, EPA published the final MSW Landfills Federal Plan, which implements the 2016 Emission Guidelines (EG Subpart Cf) under 40 CFR Part 62 Subpart OOO. The Federal Plan becomes effective June 21, 2021, and impacts landfills that have not triggered NSPS Subpart XXX requirements and landfills located in states and Indian country without EPA-approved EG Cf rules.
Affected are MSW landfills that commenced construction on or before July 17, 2014, and have not been modified or reconstructed since July 17, 2014.
The Federal Plan requires existing landfills that reach an annual emissions threshold of 34 metric tons of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) or more to install a system to collect and control landfill gas (GCCS). It also implements various emission limits, compliance schedules, testing, monitoring, reporting and recordkeeping requirements for GCCSs established in the 2016 Emission Guidelines for MSW Landfills.
The Federal Plan also establishes a definition for “legacy controlled landfills.” These are landfills that have previously satisfied the requirement to submit an initial design capacity report, initial (or annual) NMOC emission rate reports, and collection and control system design plan under 40 CFR part 60, subpart WWW; 40 CFR part 62, subpart GGG; or a state/tribal plan implementing 40 CFR part 60, subpart Cc.
If you are subject to the Federal Plan and are not a “legacy controlled landfill,” you must submit a design capacity report by September 20, 2021. And if the design capacity report indicates a capacity equal to or greater than 2.5 million Mg and 2.5 million m3 of solid waste, you must also submit an initial NMOC emission rate report within 90 days after the effective date of the Federal Plan (September 20, 2021).
SCS is working to develop a Technical Bulletin for distribution to our mailing list and on social media. The Bulletin will consolidate the Final Rule into several pages highlighting significant dates and key impacts for you.
REPRINT OF USEPA PRESS RELEASE
WASHINGTON (Dec. 3, 2019) — Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing several actions to clarify and improve New Source Review (NSR) permitting requirements. These Clean Air Act actions are part of a suite of measures EPA is taking to modernize and streamline the NSR process, without impeding the Agency’s ongoing efforts to maintain and enhance the nation’s air quality. These actions will improve regulatory certainty and remove unnecessary obstacles to projects aiming to improve the reliability, efficiency, and safety of facilities while maintaining air quality standards.
“NSR reforms are a key component of President Trump’s agenda to revitalize American manufacturing and grow our economy while continuing to protect and improve the environment,” said EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler. “NSR regularly discouraged companies from investing in and deploying the cleanest and most efficient technologies. Through the Trump Administration’s efforts, EPA is providing clarity to permitting requirements, improving the overall process, and incentivizing investments in the latest energy technologies.”
“For too long, New Source Review permitting requirements stifled job creation, hampered innovation and slowed the ability to modernize critical energy infrastructure. Worse, in previous administrations, the permits were weaponized, so liberal activists could delay key projects,” said U.S. Senator Jim Inhofe (OK). “New Source Review hasn’t been updated in over four decades—making it hard to integrate new technologies into our energy infrastructure. I’ve worked for years to modernize the review process, and applaud today’s action by President Trump and Administrator Wheeler to streamline the NSR permitting process.”
“One of my consistent frustrations with New Source Review is what seems to be a perverse incentive away from innovation. Thank you to Administrator Wheeler and the Trump Administration for recognizing this and finalizing these positive reforms,” said U.S. Senator Kevin Cramer (ND). “The EPA’s actions provide certainty while restoring the proper scope of the Clean Air Act.”
“I applaud the EPA for taking further steps to reform the New Source Review permitting program. NSR’s burdensome process can impede upgrades that would actually increase efficiency and improve air quality. The EPA is moving toward a better NSR program that streamlines the process without sacrificing environmental protections,” said U.S. Representative Morgan Griffith (VA-09).
“I applaud Administrator Wheeler for implementing a strong regulatory reform agenda at the EPA. Today’s actions are a solid first step in the right direction to reform the NSR permitting program. I look forward to continue working with the Trump Administration to further reform NSR and allow America’s industry to make their units more reliable and efficient, while maintaining strong environmental standards,” said U.S. Representative Andy Biggs (AZ-05).
“President Donald Trump continues to deliver on his promise to cut burdensome regulations that strangle American manufacturing and energy development. These improvements to the New Source Review (NSR) permitting requirements will protect our air quality, while incentivizing businesses to grow and expand. I look forward to continuing to work with President Trump and Administrator Wheeler to cut needless regulations and create American jobs,” said U.S. Representative Alex X. Mooney (WV-02).
“This Administration is clearing the path for manufacturers to invest in more energy efficient technologies that conserve energy, reduce emissions, and keep U.S. manufacturers competitive,” said Portland Cement Association President and CEO Mike Ireland. “For energy-intensive industries like cement, strategic investment in energy efficiency and emissions reduction are key components of any long-term climate and sustainability strategy, and EPA’s New Source Review reforms announced today help unlock new opportunities for sustainable operation.”
Final Guidance: Revised Policy on Exclusions from “Ambient Air”
After considering public comments, EPA is issuing final guidance, identifying the sort of measures which EPA may take account of in determining whether a source owner or operator has precluded the general public from having access to its property. Where access is precluded, the portion of the atmosphere above that property is not considered “ambient air” for the purpose of conducting air quality analyses under the Clean Air Act. The guidance updates EPA’s policy to recognize that a variety of measures may be considered effective in keeping the public off a source owner/operator’s property. These measures, which account for advances in surveillance and monitoring, depend on site-specific circumstances and continue to include, but are now not solely limited to, fences or other physical barriers. State, local and tribal permitting authorities have the discretion to apply this guidance on a case-by-case basis. The regulatory definition of “ambient air,” as stated in 40 CFR § 50.1(e) to mean “that portion of the atmosphere, external to buildings, to which the general public has access,” remains unchanged.
Final Guidance: Interpreting “Adjacent” for New Source Review and Title V Source Determinations in All Industries other than Oil and Gas
EPA has also recently issued a final guidance that revises the agency’s interpretation of when multiple air pollution-emitting activities are located on sufficiently “adjacent” properties to one another that they should be considered a single source for the purposes of permitting. To determine what activities comprise a single source under the NSR and Title V air permitting programs, three factors must be satisfied: the activities must be under common control; they must be located on contiguous or adjacent properties; and they must fall under the same major group standard industrial classification (SIC) code. In this guidance, for all industries other than oil and natural gas production and processing for which there is a separate set of rules and to which this guidance does not apply, EPA adopts an interpretation of “adjacent” that is based on physical proximity only. The concept of “functional interrelatedness” would not be considered by EPA when determining whether activities are located on adjacent properties. This interpretation should help clarify and streamline the permitting process.
Additional NSR Proposals
EPA also recently issued a proposal to address minor errors that have accumulated over time in four NSR regulations. While these minor errors, such as outdated cross references and typographical errors, have not materially impeded the effective operation of the NSR program, EPA believes that it is important to remove such errors from the regulations in order to provide regulatory certainty and clarity. The proposed corrections are all considered to be non-substantive and are intended to provide clarity and precision to the NSR regulations without altering any NSR policy or changing the NSR program as a whole.
EPA is also proposing to remove from the NSR regulations various provisions, such as certain “grandfathering” provisions, that, with the passage of time, no longer serve any practical function or purpose. EPA will be taking comment on this proposal, which will be published in the Federal Register.
More information on these actions and other NSR improvements are available at: https://www.epa.gov/nsr
Coming Soon: Revisions to Petition Provisions of Title V Permitting Program
EPA is currently working to take final action on a 2016 proposal for revisions to the title V regulations. This proposal would streamline and clarify processes related to the submittal and review of title V petitions.
The proposed rule would bring more certainty for all stakeholders, including the sources required to obtain and maintain title V permits; more focused petitions; better title V permit records which are expected to result in fewer petitions; and reduced administrative burden in the EPA’s review of petitions in a tight timeframe.
Congress established New Source Review as a preconstruction permitting program in the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments. The program intended to ensure the maintenance of air quality standards around the country and that state of the art technology is installed at new plants or existing plants undergoing major modifications.
Under the NSR program, before constructing a new stationary emission source or major modification of an existing source, the source operator must determine whether the new source will emit or the project will increase air emissions above certain thresholds. If so, the operator may need to get a permit from a state government or EPA that may require installation of pollution control technology or other measures.
Contract your SCS project manager, or if you have questions about the impact of these recent actions.
Air rules are complicated. Landfill emissions differ from typical industrial sources resulting in rules that vary in significant ways. If you’re a landfill owner responsible for compliance, a regulator charged with monitoring landfills, or new to the industry, join us for this informative Air & Waste Management Association live presentation. The webinar will help you will learn how the rules affect landfills, understand what must be submitted and when, and the steps to take for compliance.
EPA recently established expansive new air rules affecting MSW Landfills. Implementation of the new rules places new responsibilities on both the regulated community and regulators alike. However, some of these responsibilities are unclear and have created unresolved issues that should be addressed in close consultation now with your state/local regulatory authority.
For example, if a landfill is “new,” the facility is now subject to NSPS Subpart XXX, which is fully effective. A design capacity and NMOC emissions rate report should already have been submitted.
If NMOC emissions from a facility exceed 34 Mg/yr, then the landfill will need to submit a GCCS design plan within 12 months of the date of exceedance and install and operate within 30 months (no later than May 2019 for those triggering with the promulgation of the rule). If a landfill is an “existing emissions source,” it will be subject to the new EG rule (Subpart Cf).
Landfill owners should maintain close contact with their state/local regulatory authority regarding the status of the regulator’s state implementation plan, due by November 2017. That state implementation plan will prescribe the required compliance dates for an existing landfill, likely to be no later than the 2018/2020 time period. In either case, owners should become familiar with the rule and stayed tuned as compliance guidance evolves to address the unresolved issues.
Contact SCS Engineers to discuss the regulatory status in your state at , or call your local representative.
On Monday, October 27, 2015, the Solid Waste Association of North America–SWANA and the National Waste & Recycling Association– NWRA submitted joint comments to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency– EPA on the proposed revisions of the Emissions Guidelines– EG and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and to the supplemental proposal to the Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills.
SCS Engineers has also submitted comments pertaining to the proposed EG and compliance revisions to the EPA. SCS leaders are involved in many outreach activities to help landfill owners and operators understand and prepare for the impact of the proposed modifications.
Contact SCS Engineers at for more information, or visit the SCS website for upcoming events and pertinent resources.
Today, the National Waste & Recycling Association hosted a webinar concerning the revised NSPS (New Source Performance Standards for Landfills) Rule. EPA is revising the NSPS rules which will be tentatively published in the Fall, 2015. These rule changes may impact the way air emissions from landfills are being managed and is a significant change from 1996 published standards. During this informative session, attendees learned:
If you missed this presentation, NWRA has granted SCS permission to post the slide show on our website. We welcome everyone to view the slide show and thank the NWRA for sponsoring the webinar. Webinar presenters include:
For more information and answers to your questions please contact Pat Sullivan, SCS Engineers or the webinar presenters.
Click for information about NSPS/NESHAP Compliance Services.