carbon sequestration

January 31, 2024

Geologic Carbon Sequestration
View the SCS Engineers educational library for greenhouse gas reduction and sequestration on our website – link below.


Capturing carbon dioxide and injecting it into a Class VI well for permanent geologic carbon sequestration, or CO2 storage, is a practice that industry leaders use to decarbonize manufacturing processes. Manufacturers use CO2 storage to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint. There has been an uptick in proposed projects, both commercial hub-scale and single emitter-affiliated scale, particularly within the last year. The catalyst for the uptick in proposed projects is primarily the associated financial incentives, including federal tax credits and grant monies.

In this educational webinar, Professional Geologist Kacey Garber describes what manufacturers interested in geologic CO2 storage can expect the project landscape to look like in 2024. The video includes a discussion of the following:

  1. Recent and upcoming changes to Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) primacy or regulatory authority;
  2. Pending project status and anticipated changes in status;
  3. Recent and upcoming CarbonSAFE grant opportunities; and
  4. Evolving project opportunities in both conventional and unconventional settings.


Understanding the current project landscape and how and when future project opportunities might evolve is important for manufacturers considering the geologic storage of their CO2 stream, whether through a larger commercial hub or a smaller on-site project.


Click here to watch the educational webinar An Update on the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Project Landscape.

Additional Resources:


Kacey Garber

About the Presenter: Kacey Garber is a professional geologist experienced as a groundwater project manager for active and closed industrial client sites. Her responsibilities include groundwater monitoring and statistical analyses; reports and permit applications; designing sampling and analysis plans; special groundwater studies; and conducting groundwater well construction planning and design. She has also been involved in PFAS work groups and publishes on the topics of UIC and geologic carbon sequestration.


Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am

December 22, 2023

SCS Engineers is a Bronze Sponsor of Air & Waste Management Association’s 117th ACE 2024 Conference, June 24-27, at the Calgary TELUS Convention Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

The theme is “Emissions Reductions for Sustainable Energy Futures.”

SCS Engineers is hosting two booths at ACE 2024 – so swing by #102 and #104 to talk with our air and waste management experts and see demonstrations of advanced remote monitoring and control (RMC)  software!  Talk with Pat Sullivan, Mike McLaughlin, Monte Markley, Melissa Russo, Ryan Thomas, Ketan Shah, Stephanie Taylor, Evelyn Martinez, and David Greene about how SCS can find solutions for your air and waste management challenges.

Several of our professionals are presenting, including:

Ryan Thomas is Co-Chairing “Air Pollution Control: GHGs”
Tuesday, June 25, 4:00 – 5:40 pm, Location: Glen 205

David Greene is Co-Chairing “Landfills and Energy Recovery
Tuesday, June 25, 4:00 – 6:00 pm, Location: Macleod E4

Ryan Thomas is Co-Chairing “Air Pollution Control: VOCs”
Wednesday, June 26, 10:10 – 11:50 am, Location: Glen 205

Stephanie Taylor is Panel Chair and Monte Markley is a Panelist of “How Does It Work? Carbon Sequestration”
Wednesday, June 26, 1:30 – 3:10 pm, Location: Macleod E1

Dr. Ketan Shah is Chairing “Sustainability Case Studies and Tools”
Wednesday, June 26, 3:30 – 5:30 pm, Location: Macleod E2

Dr. Ketan Shah is Chairing “Decision Support Tool Process Module for Municipal Solid Waste Processing for Developing Countries”
Wednesday, June 26, 3:50 – 4:10 pm, Location: Macleod E2

David Greene is is Chairing “Waste Management and Resource Recovery”
Wednesday, June 26, 3:30 – 5:30 pm, Location: Macleod E4

The Canadian Prairies region is a fast-growing area with many important exports including oil and gas, agriculture, and timber. In addition, this region spans many latitudes and encompasses many biomes including Grassland, Parkland, Foothills, Boreal Forest, Rocky Mountains, and the Canadian Shield. With this diversity in ecosystems and major exports comes a plethora of challenges. A calculated balance between resource development, social responsibilities, and environmental stewardship is needed; this makes the region a hotspot for emissions reductions and technological innovations.

Calgary is excited to host ACE 2024, bringing industry, academia, and policymakers together so that we can learn, collaborate, and most importantly, improve environmental knowledge and decision-making in this unique landscape which is at the forefront of global change. Alberta’s industries are constantly adapting, creating, and incorporating new technologies for responsible and sustainable development, with a focus on renewable and alternative resources. The global community will find Calgary, Alberta, and Canada a nexus for emerging ideas, innovations, and solutions in the field of environmental stewardship that are applicable worldwide.

Online registration is now open!   Click here for more conference details

We hope to see you there!




Posted by Laura Dorn at 1:43 pm

November 14, 2023

carbon storage, carbon sequestration, carbon casting
Ensure your investment in the most appropriate, sound strategies that take a holistic approach. Learn more about carbon casting here!


Carbon management often takes a holistic approach, combining one or more environmental solutions. The CO2 experts at SCS Engineers recommend looking at Graphyte’s hybrid technology approach for carbon casting, a new approach to carbon removal that leverages readily available biomass.  The solution is backed and incubated by Bill Gates’ Breakthrough Energy Ventures. Here’s how it works…

  • Timber and agriculture industry by-products are dried and condensed into dense blocks, which stops decomposition.
  • The carbon blocks are further protected with an environmentally safe, impermeable barrier.
  • The blocks are then stored in state-of-the-art sites with sensors and tracers.
  • These specialized sites enable long-term monitoring for sustainable environmental protection.
  • The land above the storage sites is open for solar and agricultural uses.

Learn more about sustainable carbon management, carbon casting, carbon sequestration, and carbon reduction verification.




Posted by Diane Samuels at 10:54 am

November 2, 2023

groundwater protection during carbon dioxide injection
Site Characterization is the stringent process by which the EPA permits Class VI wells for carbon storage and sequestration, our protection for groundwater.


SCS Engineers explains how site characterization provides groundwater protection during carbon dioxide injection. Geologist Lindsey Hawksworth discusses the process by which the EPA permits Class VI wells for carbon storage and sequestration. She takes viewers through the steps of determining if a proposed project site has a suitable injection zone to receive carbon dioxide and a confining zone that prevents fluid movement out of the injection zone. Her guidance may help viewers determine if their Class VI wells operate as permitted. And, importantly, it helps detect risks that may lead to groundwater endangerment and potential reevaluation of the area of review where potential threats may exist. Spend 10 minutes with this sharp young professional!


Watch Groundwater Protection During Carbon Dioxide Injection


Meet Lindsey Hawksworth, an SCS Project Professional. Lindsey provides groundwater sampling and monitoring, permitting, and field services management for groundwater protection. If you want to work with smart people like Lindsey, visit SCS Engineers. Reach out to her at or on LinkedIn with comments and questions.

See the SCS Engineers’ library of Clean Air and Greenhouse Gas Reduction videos for more educational content from our professionals. Visit our Carbon Sequestration & Deep Well Injection site where you’ll find more information about how to permanently isolate fluids and gases in deep geologic formations to ensure these materials stay there and don’t impact useable resources or the environment.




Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am

October 19, 2023

CO2 Storage
Kacey Garber, M.S. is an experienced geologist and hydrogeologist and a member of the SCS Engineers Carbon Sequestration and Deep Well Injection Practice. Her areas of expertise include Class VI UIC permitting for CO2 storage projects and environmental permitting for landfills and coal combustion residual disposal sites. In particular, she serves an integral role in the site characterization, Area of Review delineation/modeling, and monitoring plan development efforts for Class VI UIC permitting projects.


Capturing carbon dioxide and injecting it into a Class VI well for permanent geologic (carbon) sequestration, or CO2 storage, is a technology that industry leaders are using to decarbonize manufacturing processes. Utilizing CO2 storage allows manufacturers and industries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprints. The complexity of carbon sequestration projects can vary widely depending on your facility’s location.

In this 10-minute educational video, Geologist Kacey Garber describes the benefits and considerations of assessing the feasibility of carbon sequestration before entering the permitting process of a full-scale project. The resulting feasibility study helps develop your facility’s safest and most economical CO2 storage project.

The historical use of other injection well classes demonstrates the utility of injection wells for safe and permanent disposal or sequestration of fluids and GHG. As a result, large areas of the U.S. host viable CO2 storage resources. However, as Kacey explains, never assume that any given location is suitable for a Class VI injection well.

CO2 storage projects are a multi-decade commitment with significant technical, regulatory, and financial complexities. As such, industries must understand the financial impacts of a sequestration project, the regulatory framework, and the geologic suitability for Class VI injection in a given project location.


Watch What to Consider When Accessing Feasibility of CO2 Storage.



Additional Resources:




Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am

October 16, 2023

deep injection wells
Stephanie Hill is a program co-leader for the SCS Carbon Sequestration and Deep Well Injection practice. She is a hydrogeologist and licensed Professional Geologist in multiple states, advising industrial clients on geologic storage options for carbon neutrality and disposal of industrial liquid residuals.


Injection well technologies have stored fluids and gases below protected drinking water aquifers for over half a century. When properly sited, designed, and operated, injection wells are a safe and responsible environmental management option for industries seeking permanent disposal of liquid and emission byproducts. Using two types of deep injection wells, some with environmental stewardship and federal tax credits available, SCS Engineers explains.

Hydrogeologist and licensed Professional Geologist Stephanie Hill provides a plain language overview of how EPA-approved injection wells work, a simplified graphic to show where injection wells are useful, and the associated costs and time to implement an operational system using Class I wells for deep injection of liquids and Class VI wells for sequestering carbon dioxide.

Byproducts include industrial wastewater or leachates, among others, and, importantly, sequestering carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases. With the rise of transportation costs and water treatment plant restrictions, more industries seek certainty to support business and environmental longevity. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in using injection well systems to manage waste liquids and leachate. The operation of injection wells permanently sequesters industrial byproducts and is a federal and state-preferred technology to protect underground drinking water sources.

SCS Carbon Sequestration and Deep Well Injection team co-leader Stephanie Hill explains how operating an injection well system at your facility may help insulate your business from increasing disposal costs and serves as a responsible environmental management option.


Watch An Overview of Carbon Sequestration and Deep Well Injection for Industry.


Additional Resources:





Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am

October 2, 2023

SCS Engineers is thrilled to welcome Carrie Ridley to the Wichita, Kansas, office. Carrie is a licensed professional geologist joining us from the Kansas Geological Survey, where she held Project Manager and Principal Investigator roles for Department of Energy projects. These projects focused on Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage, and investigation into Critical Minerals.

Prior to that, she spent four years as the Geology and Well Technology Chief within the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. There, she managed the federally designated UIC 1422 program, the Underground Hydrocarbon Storage and Water Well Contractors programs. Prior to UIC work, she worked for six years with the RCRA program in the Bureau of Waste Management as a project manager.  Carrie spent ten years with the Kansas Department of Transportation in the Topeka Geology office to begin her career after receiving her MS degree from Kansas State University.

Carrie brings extensive knowledge of state and federal funding, project development, and contracting programs. We are excited to have her join our Deep Well Injection and Carbon Sequestration team.

Monte Markley, our Deep Well and Carbon Sequestration National Expert states, “We are excited to have Carrie join SCS; her extensive knowledge of the UIC universe will benefit our clients and further strengthen our team.”


If you’d like to work with experts such as Carrie Ridley on work to preserve our quality of life – visit SCS.

Posted by Diane Samuels at 3:48 pm

September 25, 2023

Public-private partnerships highlight the nation’s commitment to responsible carbon capture and storage practices by harnessing the potential of our natural surroundings to address climate change. Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta – a portion of the California Delta.


Taking a Critical Step Towards Net Zero Emissions Using Carbon Sequestration

The picturesque California Delta, often referred to as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, is emerging as a geological sweet spot in California’s ambitious journey toward reaching net zero carbon emissions. Its unique geology presents a compelling case for carbon sequestration, an essential strategy in the battle against climate change. Recent developments, including a collaborative effort between SCS and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on a Class VI permit application for Pelican Renewables – a company formed by Delta landowners and residents to pursue geologic storage – are indicative of the region’s growing importance in California’s carbon mitigation strategy.

Geological Foundations of Carbon Sequestration in the California Delta

The California Delta, often referred to as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, is a vast inland delta formed by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their tributaries as they meet the waters of the San Francisco Bay. Its unique geology makes it an ideal candidate for carbon sequestration:

  1. Sedimentary Riches: The Delta’s subsurface predominantly comprises thick sedimentary deposits. These layers of sediment offer substantial storage capacity for carbon dioxide, providing an opportunity to trap and store emissions safely underground.
  2. Aquifers Beneath: Deep beneath the Delta’s surface lie extensive brine aquifers, isolated from the atmosphere. These natural reservoirs can serve as secure carbon storage sites, with a proven ability to hold CO2 securely over geologic time.
  3. Stability Amidst Earthquakes: The Delta region is seismically inactive compared to other parts of California. This geological stability is vital for the long-term integrity of carbon storage sites.
  4. Proximity to CO2 Sources: The Delta’s strategic location in close proximity to many major emission sources, including industrial facilities and urban centers like Sacramento and San Francisco, reduces transportation costs and emissions associated with moving captured CO2.


California’s Net Zero Carbon Goal and Carbon Sequestration in the Delta

California has set an ambitious goal to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2045, a milestone in the fight against climate change. Achieving this objective necessitates reducing emissions and actively removing and storing carbon from the atmosphere. Carbon sequestration in the California Delta can play a pivotal role in this endeavor. The Delta’s geological potential aligns seamlessly with the state’s commitment to sustainable practices and environmental responsibility.

Collaborative Efforts: SCS and LLNL’s Support for Pelican Renewables’ Class VI Permit Application

The collaboration between SCS Engineers and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that supported geologic characterization, modeling, and CO2 injection simulation for Pelican Renewables’ injection well application underscores the importance of pursuing carbon sequestration in the California Delta. The Class VI permit application underlines Pelican’s commitment to conducting carbon capture and storage (CCS) activities with the highest safety and environmental standards. This initiative is a testament to the growing synergy between scientific research and private enterprise in addressing climate challenges.

References and Further Reading

For a deeper dive into California’s carbon removal options for reaching net zero, “Getting to Neutral” by LLNL is a valuable resource. This publication outlines the various strategies and technologies under research to achieve California’s ambitious carbon reduction goals, including carbon sequestration in regions like the California Delta. The most recent “Scoping Plan” by the California Air Resources Board – the state’s policy blueprint for achieving its climate goals – underscores the need to capture and store CO2 from large sources and the atmosphere.

Our Conclusions

The California Delta’s geological attributes make it an attractive destination for carbon sequestration, a critical component in California’s mission to achieve net zero carbon emissions. Collaborative endeavors like SCS’s ongoing partnership with LLNL and Pelican Renewables highlight the commitment to responsible carbon capture and storage practices. As we continue to innovate and harness the potential of our natural surroundings, the California Delta’s role in addressing climate change becomes increasingly evident and essential.


Carbon Sequestration Considerations & Resources


gary vancilAbout the Author: Gary Vancil is an SCS project director and geologist supporting the environmental firm’s safe carbon sequestration and deep well injection practice. He earned his MS and BS in Geosciences with an emphasis in resource geology at Southern Illinois University of Carbondale. Mr. Vancil’s expertise also covers resource development, extraction, and mining sub-surface investigations for the nation’s largest privately held mining company. If you’d like to learn more or have questions, reach Gary at or LinkedIn.



Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am

September 7, 2023

carbon capture and sequestration
Educational videos are available on the website. Always free and non-commercial.


Capturing carbon and injecting it into a carbon sequestration well, also called a Class VI Well, is an EPA-approved technology. Manufacturers and industries are considering using carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (CO2). Often, the public is concerned that carbon injection wells could contaminate underground drinking water — a legitimate concern, given today’s headlines. In this environmental engineering blog, we’ll describe the two ways underground drinking water could be contaminated and how to prevent it.

Contamination can occur if the CO2 can migrate up the well bore into the aquifer anytime after injection. The second instance is if pressure forces the brine from the injection zone into the aquifer.

Environmental engineering teams, which include professional geologists, hydrogeologists, and geoscience experts, take steps and provide well-operators guidance to protect drinking water sources, including calculating the Area of Review (AOR) around the injection well and computational modeling to understand how the pressures can build up during injection to create unsafe conditions.

Armed with expert knowledge and more modeling accuracy, operators can prevent contamination, extend the life of carbon sequestration wells, and address public concerns.

Dr. Charles Hostetler explains in the SCS educational video how accurately calculating the AOR and understanding critical pressure work together so companies can confidently use carbon capture and sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions safely.

Click to watch

A Computational Modeling Approach to Critical Pressure Calculations for Class VI Area of Review Delineation


At SCS, we’re always available to answer questions – contact SCS at or find an office near you. Human Resources would like to hear from you if you desire a rewarding career working with companies to help them run efficiently and cleaner.


About the Speaker: Dr. Charles Hostetler has nearly four decades of experience as a consulting hydrogeologist. His expertise includes permitting, interacting with regulatory agencies and stakeholder groups, and numerical modeling of hydrogeological processes.


Additional Carbon Sequestration Resources:





Posted by Diane Samuels at 6:00 am

September 5, 2023

Join SCS Engineers professionals at the Illinois Manufacturer’s Association’s Environment & Energy Conference on October 18 at Governors State University in University Park, IL (Chicago south suburbs).

Hear from SCS expert Charles Hostetler, Ph.D., who is delivering a presentation on Carbon Capture and Sequestration.

The conference is taking shape. Check back as more details are available.


Posted by Laura Dorn at 4:10 pm